Med. Weter. 76 (12), 684-689, 2020

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Madej J.A.
Role of oncoviruses in oncogenesis
The author describes DNA oncoviruses and RNA oncoviruses, their ways of infiltrating the host’s cells, and the possibilities of neoplastic transformation of cells by these microorganisms. The role of protooncogenesis and oncogenesis in both humans and animals is discussed. The transformation of cells by viruses is normally insufficient for oncogenesis; the cells also need to gain “immortality,” which usually requires 4-5 genetic changes (the so-called clonal development of cells), (Fig. 1). Oncoviruses remove suppressor growth factors while enhancing the effects that stimulate cell growth through e.g. hormones, cytokines, or transcription activators. In addition, the author discusses the role of the optimization principle in neogenesis.
Keywords: DNA oncoviruses, RNA oncoviruses, human neoplasia, animal neoplasia, optimization