Med. Weter. 77

full text

Swine influenza: Newer data on diagnosis, interpretation of the results, and control
Influenza viruses are among the major causes of acute respiratory disease outbreaks in pigs. In most cases, infections are subclinical. Until 2009, three subtypes of IAV-S circulated in the pig population in Europe, with some geographical restrictions regarding their prevalence: avian-like (av) H1N1, reassortant (r) H3N2, and human (hu) H1N2. Viruses of the H1N1av lineage appeared to be responsible for the majority of swine infections in Europe. In 2009, a fourth subtype entered the pig population: the human pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1pdm). Due to the expression of receptors with α-2-6 or α-2-3-linked terminal sialic acids in the porcine upper respiratory tract, swine appear to be susceptible to influenza A viruses of both avian and human origin. A clinical diagnosis of swine influenza is not easy, since there are no observable pathognomonic clinical signs, and the disease must be distinguished from a variety of other respiratory conditions in pigs. A final diagnosis can be made by the following methods: detection of viral proteins or nucleic acid, isolation of virus, or demonstration of virus-specific antibodies. IAV-S is most likely to be found in nasal and pharyngeal secretions during the fever period of illness. Serological tests are used to demonstrate the presence of influenza-specific antibodies. Serology is the most useful technique to determine the immune status of the herd, to assess the levels of maternally derived antibodies in young piglets and their profile, as well as post-vaccination antibody titers, and to perform pre-movement testing of pigs. The interpretation of serological data is often complex and may be further confounded by concurrent circulation of different virus subtypes and gene lineages. In control of IAV-S, vaccination appears to be the primary tool for preventing influenza. The efficacy of vaccination may be various and is correlated with homology between vaccine and field IAV-S strains. There is no treatment available for IAV-S. The administration of aspirin via the water system or of paracetamol in feed may play a role as a support therapy. To avoid subsequent bacterial infections, treatment with an antibiotic is essential.