Med. Weter. 2021, 77 (9), 465-470

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LUBOW ZHVANKO, TAMARA PRYKHODKO, IRYNA BORODAI, LUDMYŁA TATARCZUK, TETIANA PIDHAJNA, NATALA KOLOMIJEC, GENNADIJ MAKHORIN, DMYTRO KIBKALO
World-famous scientist Leon Tsenkovsky (1822–1887): to the 200th anniversary of the father of the anthrax vaccine in the Russian Empire
The aim of the proposed article is to cover the life and scientific achievements of Leon Tsenkovsky (1822–1887), a prominent microbiologist, botanist, bacteriologist, traveler, theorist and scientist-practitioner, a talented teacher, creator of his own vaccine against anthrax in Russia, one of the most prominent researchers of primitive organisms at that time. The authors of the article came to the conclusion that the scientist occupies a forward position among the Polish scholars, who were working during the statelessness of Poland and brought glory to their homeland. The narration of the material is presented in the context of the main stages of the scientist's life – „Warsaw”, „Petersburg”, „Yaroslavl”, „Foreign”, „Odessa”, „Kharkiv”. Particular attention is paid to the Kharkiv period of the scientist's life, when he proved himself as a talented scientist-practitioner, creating the so-called „Tsenkovsky vaccine”, which was not inferior in effectiveness to Pasteur's invention. It is demonstrated that in addition to scientific activities, he was engaged in public and teaching activities at the Imperial University and Kharkiv Veterinary Institute. The memory of Leon Tsenkovsky in Kharkiv is immortalized on the pages of a calendar dedicated to prominent Polish scientists associated with the city, as well as in a commemorative plaque that will be unveiled at the former Kharkiv Veterinary Institute in autumn 2021 and dedicated to the prominent Poles, creators of veterinary medicine in the territory of East of Ukraine.
Keywords: Leon Tsenkowski, Polish scientist, Kharkiv, vaccine, Kharkiv Veterinary Institute