Med. Weter. 2021, 77 (12), 615-617

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Clinicopathological findings in an atypical form of suspected necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a Pug dog
The increasing popularity of Pug dogs contributes to greater awareness of their breed-specific diseases, such as necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME). The genetic test for detecting NME markers may be helpful for breeding purposes but is less useful in diagnosing the disease in individual dogs. The presented case sheds light on diagnostics and survival time in a suspected NME case as well as the breeding strategy in a carrier dog. A 30-month-old intact female fawn Pug was evaluated for a one-week history of recurrent tonic-clonic seizures and mild obtundation. The clinicopathological exam revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis of and an elevated microprotein concentration in the CSF with negative PCR assays for infectious diseases. MRI of the head revealed the presence of a T2-W hyperintense and contrast-enhancing lesion in the left piriform lobe. At the age of one, the dog was tested for NME genetic markers and was found to be heterozygous for the disease susceptibility (N/NME). Although the genetic test indicated a “low risk” of developing NME, a presumptive diagnosis of necrotizing meningoencephalitis (Pug dog encephalitis) was made. 18 months after the initial diagnosis the dog was alive and asymptomatic, which is what is unusual for NME. The owner is considering breeding the dog. Acute onset of seizures in a young Pug dog with inflammatory CSF and contrast-enhancing forebrain lesion do not necessarily indicate a poor prognosis. The second conclusion is that testing for NME genetic markers may be sometimes confusing, although it is a valuable tool in selecting healthy dogs for breeding.
Keywords: necrotizing meningoencephalitis, meningoencephalitis of unknown origin, CSF analysis, Pug dog