Medycyna Wet. 66 (3), 162-167, 2010
A. Jabłoński, Z. Pejsak
Update on Haemophilus parasuis infections in pigs
Haemophilus parasuis is a commensal organism of the upper respiratory tract of pigs. Under specific conditions (intensive production, movement of pigs, high density, presence of immunosuppressive pathogens [PCV2, PRRSV] in the herd, etc.) this pathogen can invade and cause severe systemic diseases, characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, arthritis, pericarditis and meningitis. Clinical symptoms of this disease (Glässer’s disease) are highly variable; often virulent strains participate as microorganisms secondary to porcine respiratory disease complex. Fifteen serovars of H. parasuis have been described by now. Individual serovars differ in virulence. Serovars 1, 5, 10, 12, 13 and 14 belong to the most virulent ones. Several strains can be found on one farm and even within a single pig. Therefore, it is important to determine the specific strain responsible for the clinical outbreak. Culture detection of the causative agent, particularly from the brain, joints and polyserositis is an essential diagnostic tool. Molecular-based methods have also been used for detecting the pathogen. Serological diagnosis of H. parasuis is inconsistent and inaccurate. The disease can be controlled by improving the swine husbandry and upgrading the level of animal hygiene and immunoprophylaxis. Commercial or autogenous (preferably) vaccines can be used for specific prophylaxis. For the production of autogenous vaccines, it is preferable to use isolates from pigs with lesions present in CNS. The clinical form of the disease can be treated with antibiotics (penicillin, amoxicillin and cephalosporin); however oral or parenteral administration of high doses of antibiotics is necessary. In herds endemically infected by virulent strain (strains), metaphylaxis based on medicated feed is recommend.
Keywords: swine, Haemophilus parasuis, infection, review.