Medycyna Wet. 66 (7), 435-438, 2010
Truszczyński M., Pejsak Z.
Mycotoxins as a cause of immunosuppression in swine
The paper is a review of publications on immunosuppression caused by mycotoxins contained in feeds consumed by swine. Most mycotoxins are produced by members of 3 genera of fungi: Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) were characterized. AFB1 decreases especially the cell–mediated immunity, impairing the response to the vaccine antigen, and modulates cytokine expression. Also, as a consequence of immunosuppression, facultatively pathogenic microorganisms are able to participate in the etiology of multifactorial diseases of swine. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is known to modulate the immune functions of swine, even when applied in relatively small doses. The breakdown of vaccinal immunity, which is low, may lead to infectious diseases against which the swine have been vaccinated, even in cases of highly efficacious vaccines. Immunosuppressive properties were also described in the case of fumonisin B1 (FB1), which – following the consumption of contaminated feed - predisposes swine to the pathological action of Pasterella multocida, a facultatively pathogenic strain which does not normally demonstrate pathogenicity. Considering the described immunosuppressive actions of mycotoxins and high losses to swine production caused by these substances, it is recommended to improve the control of feeds for their presence.
Keywords: mycotoxins, swine, immunosuppression