Medycyna Wet. 67 (11), 745-751, 2011

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Skorupski A.
Safety and biological protection in the example of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Puławy
The article describes the latest technical solutions enabling safe research on highly pathogenic biological material in the example of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Puławy. One of the priorities in conducting research on highly pathogenic microorganisms is to protect the environment from their spread. Many currently emerging diseases are zoonotic diseases, which can easily spread in the environment and are dangerous to both animals and humans. In order to eliminate the possibility of releasing pathogens from laboratories and experimental animal houses, a classification and technical requirements have been introduced to enable a safe conduct of research. There are four levels of biological safety, known as Biological Safety Levels (BSL). At level I, non-pathogenic microorganisms are used for research, which is conducted at open tables. Pathogens dealt with at level II are transmitted by blood and body fluids; infection may occur by contact with conjunctivas or through a breach in the skin surface. At this level, any contact of tested material with conjunctivas must be avoided, sharp objects must be secured, and sterile equipment must be used. Level III applies to airborne germs. Research is carried out in a laminar flow cabinet. To prevent transmission of microorganisms from the laboratory area, underpressure must be maintained with a proper ventilation system, and a number of control systems are required. Level IV applies to the most pathogenic microorganisms causing diseases of high mortality. Required protection measures include, among other things, a proper ventilation system, sluices with disinfectant showers and protective wear ensuring a complete isolation of the personnel from the environment and maintaining internal overpressure in relation to the laboratory environment. The above 4 levels of biological safety also apply to animals, and then the levels are known as ACL. This publication discusses the following systems: ventilation, electricity generation and maintenance, inactivation of contaminated sewage, communication between “clean” and “dirty” areas, waste disposal, decontamination of rooms and equipment, BMS surveillance and procedures.
Keywords: biological safety, containment, biological protection