Med. Weter. 68 (6), 333-337, 2012

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Paprocka G., Kęsy A.
Risk of disseminating of foot-and-mouth disease virus by wildlife
Foot-and-mouth-disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that primarily affects cloven-hooved livestock and wildlife. The virus can infect members of the Artiodactyla order as well as a few species in other orders. Each species varies in its susceptibility to infection and clinical disease, as well as in its ability to transmit the virus to other animals. Livestock susceptible to FMD are mainly cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. FMD virus can also infect species of wild animals, including African buffalo, bison, elk, wild boar, warthogs, kudu, impala, gazelles and several species of deer. Susceptible non cloven-hooved species include hedgehogs, capybaras, guinea pigs, rats and mice. With these exceptions, wildlife hosts do not seem to be able to maintain FMD viruses, and are usually infected by contact with domesticated livestock. The pathogenicity of FMD among wildlife ranges from asymptomatic to fatal. The signs of FMD in wildlife are generally similar to those in domestic animals; FMD vesicles develop at multiple sites, usually on the feet and in the mouth. In enzootic regions, eradication of FMD is complicated by the presence of infected wild animals which may serve as a reservoir of reintroduction to domestic herds. The most important data regarding FMD in wildlife are presented in this article.
Keywords: foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), wildlife