Med. Weter. 69 (6), 328-332, 2013

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Truszczyński M., Pejsak Z.
Urinary tract infections in pregnant sows
The urinary tract infections (UTI), particularly in pregnant sows, were defined. This disease syndrome is characterised by multifactorial etiology. There are two bacterial pathogens iniciating the disease: some serogroups of Escherichia coli and Actinobaculum suis. Mechanisms of their pathogenicity are presented. Other facultatively pathogenic species of bacteria are joining, as secondary etiological agents. Among them are Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Important predisposing, environmental factors are connected with confinement housing of sows during gestation, introduced during the last 20-30 years increasingly in the swine production on large scale. Several husbandry and management factors contribute to the development of UTI of the sows, as well. To them belongs not adequate water consumption by pregnant sows, which is considered as the very critical factor in the pathogenesis of UTI. An other factor contributing to infection is damage to the urothelium during mating. Other predisposing factors are: the lack of exercise, obesity, advanced age of the sows. Insufficient hygiene in housing conditions of sows during gestation is also contributing to the development of UTI, since perineal faecal contamination facilitates vaginal contamination with potentially pathogenic organisms causing after the ascending infection cystitis, ureteritis and pyelonephritis. Innate mechanisms of resistance of the sows against UTI are characterised in this text, as well. The coarse of infection may be symptomless or only with subtle clinical symptoms such as anorexia and frequent urination, in many cases not registered by the farmer. However, once the kidneys are affected life – threatening symptoms develop, leading to the death of the sow. The paper presents necropsy changes and mentions diagnostic tests. Treatment of UTI is given, including effective antibiotics, being successful if they are administered sufficiently early. In the prevention of UTI the needed supply of water, appropriate housing conditions, including hygiene and welfare for pregnant sows are suggested.
Key words: urinary tract infections, pregnant sows