Med. Weter. 70 (3), 136-146, 2014

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Madej J.A.
Molecular mechanisms of neoplastic metastasis - selected issues
Malignant tumor consists predominantly of proliferating cells, a smaller percentage of the cells in the resting phase G0 and G1 and also necrotic and/or apoptotic cells. It is a heterogeneous structure with the ability to metastasize including acquisition of additional genetic mutation, migrate ability or the production of MMP (metalloproteinase). Unfortunately, currently impossible is to find in the tumor tissue cells with clearly specify features of metastasis and therefore it requires to intensify research in this direction. This paper describes the stages of the cancer cells migration from a originating place, which effect is to create metastatic deposits. Metastatic process is compare to the adoption "seedlings in the soil" (seed and soil). In both the metastatic cells as well as in the target organ cells, complementary adhesion molecules expresses. Stroma of the organ decides of cancer cells adoption. It should be characterized by the absence of proteinase inhibitors, the presence of various growth factors and the ability to neoangiogenesis. Each metastasis can a point of departure for further metastasis. It has been also describes a number of metastatic mechanisms, ie involved in the process of chemokines, adhesion molecules, neoangiogenesis, types of Lewis antigens a, b, x, y, cancer stem cells (CSC), and presents the phenomenon of transmigration through the blood vessels, which is similar to the migration of granulocytes in the system. Tumor cells clones with high metastatic potential; differ from low metastatic counterparts with regard to pheno- and genotypic features. This means that not all of the malignant tumors have the same invasiveness, or metastatic potential. Therefore, special attention was paid to the role of genes in metastatic neoplasia (genes: SDF1, BRMS1, MET, IAP-4, KAI-1, KISS-1, NM-23-H1, UGT8, alpha Klotho). It is also mentioned about the newly discovered intercellular connections, ie membrane nanotubes (tunnel - TNTs), enabling the mitochondrial transport between cells, mtDNA transfer and its mutation and also intermediate in the phenomenon of MDR (multidrug resistance), i.e. removal the xenobiotics from the cells (such as cytostatics), which explains the failure of cancer chemotherapy. Unfortunately recognition of all metastatic molecular mechanisms has not been so far fully explained.
Key words: primary neoplastic tumor, metastatic mechanism, metastatic genes, tumor cell group antigens