Med. Weter. 70 (8), 451-455, 2014

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Truszczyński M., Pejsak Z.
Classical swine fever – the present epidemiological situation in Europe
The purpose of the article was to characterize the progress achieved in Europe during the last two decades on the control of classical swine fever (CSF) in domestic pigs and the wild boar population in Europe. RT-PCR and other findings based on molecular biology, improving laboratory diagnosis and enabling the use of DIVA strategy in vaccination, were mentioned. The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) using genome sequencing could be divided into 3 genotypes. Genotype 1 and 2 could be subdivided into 3 subgenotypes, each and genotype 3 in 4 subgenotypes. These results enabled the implementation of tracing the spread of particular strains of CSFV and the definition of the origin of the infection, what earlier was not possible. A special database of these findings is located in the E.U. and OIE Reference Laboratory for CSF in the Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine in Hannover, Germany. In the second part of the paper the current epidemiological situation concerning CSF in domestic pigs and the wild boar population is characterized. It relates to Germany and France, Slovakia and Hungary, Lithuania and Latvia, Romania, Bulgaria and the Balkan region. Besides E.U. member countries also other European countries are mentioned. It is underlined, that the wild boar population plays a crucial role as the reservoir of CSFV in Europe. In connection with this statement a working group on CSF in wild boar of the Directorate General Health and Consumer Protection (DGSANCO) of the European Commission initiated a common data base on the epidemiology of CSF in wild boar. In parallel to collecting CSFV isolates and sequences data concerning strains from domestic pigs the same information from wild boar is collected. All these data are to disposal of the national Reference Laboratories for CSF worldwide. The paper, at the end, presents recommendations concerning progress in the control and eradication of CSF, mentioning the significant role of vaccination with the use of DIVA strategy particularly for the wild boar population. Despite of the achieved progress, taking into account the present epidemiologic situation in Europe it is stated, that CSF still belongs to the most important viral diseases in pigs in Europe and also worldwide.
Key words: Classical swine fever, domestic pigs, wild boar, Europe, molecular epidemiology, databases