Med. Weter. 71 (4), 224-230, 2015

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Majer–Dziedzic B., Pochodyła M., Jaworska–Adamu J., Dudzic A., Tokarzewski S. Pochodyła A.
Course of specific humoral and cellular immune response in pigeons immunized with attenuated and inactivated vaccines against salmonellosis
The aim of the study was to observe the time course of the immune response in pigeons after immunization with a live (attenuated) vaccine, Zoosal T, and an autogenous bacterin (inactivated vaccine). The tube agglutination test and the ELISA test were used to measure the dynamics of serum antibodies to Salmonella, determine the white blood cell (WBC) count, and evaluate the leukogram of immunized pigeons. In order to evaluate the cellular response in immunized birds, a leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) procedure was developed and tested. Histological changes were determined in pigeons immunized with ZOOSAL T and the experimental vaccine. The tests revealed a relationship between the beginning of the immune response as evaluated by tube agglutination and ELISA tests and by the MIF test. After immunization with ZOOSAL T, when the cellular response, as measured by the LMI test, appeared at day 14 and amounted to 32% migration inhibition, there was also a significant increase in antibody titers in the agglutination test (70.00) and an increase in ELISA OD values (0.259). After a single administration of the experimental vaccine, the agglutination antibody titers at day 21 of the experiment increased markedly (93.33), as did ELISA OD value, which increased until day 35 (to 0.345). Leukocyte migration inhibition reached the highest value (26%) at day 28, which shows that the immune response after single immunization increased more slowly than in group B. At day 7 after repeat vaccination with the autogenous bacterin, there was a significant increase in agglutination antibody titers (320.00). Similar patterns of changes were observed in the ELISA test. High OD values appeared at day 7 after revaccination (0.985) and persisted during the subsequent days of the experiment (28 days after revaccination: OD = 0.931) The cellular response appeared as early as 24 hours after revaccination (39% migration inhibition) and increased very rapidly, reaching 76% inhibition at day 3. Subsequently, there was a slow decline, but 2 weeks after repeat vaccination, the percentage of migration inhibition was still 22% (tab. 1, 2, 5). Our study demonstrated that the experimental vaccine based on an isolated strain of Salmonella Typhimurium var. Copenhagen, containing carbomer and Ginseng extract (Radix panax ginseg), administered twice to domestic pigeons induced a humoral and cellular immune response that was twice as strong as the response induced by the commercial vaccine ZOOSAL T.
Key words: pigeons, vaccine, cellular response, humoral response