Med. Weter. 73 (3), 136-143, 2017

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Genowefa Bonczar, Magda Filipczak-Fiutak, Agnieszka Pluta-Kubica, Iwona Duda
Biogenic amines present in cheese – occurrence and threats
The review presents the general characteristics of biogenic amines present in cheese: the formation, the influence on the human body, the threats that ensue from the intake of them with food, the current limits of their amount in food and their ingestion, and also the methods of reducing the content of biogenic amines in food. Particular attention has been drawn to the presence of biogenic amines in cheese and the factors that determine the amount of these substances in cheese. The effect of microorganisms on the level of the amines in cheese, time and temperature of ripening and storing of cheese, as well as other factors like pH of cheese, salt concentration, pasteurization and homogenization of milk, accessibility of oxygen, redox potential, part of cheese and starter culture addition were discussed. The presented data indicate that biogenic amines are present in cheese in varying amounts, sometimes reaching levels toxic to humans. The main factors that increase the content of biogenic amines in cheese are microorganisms, in particular those not from the starter, long time and high temperature of ripening and storing. The decrease of biogenic amines content in cheese is favoured by pasteurization and homogenization of milk and by employment of high pressure on cheese (400 – 600 MPa). Other factors, such as pH, salt concentration, addition of starter cultures and herbs, accessibility of oxygen, redox potential also have an influence on the amount of biogenic amines in cheese; these, however, vary.
Key words: biogenic amines, cheese, threats, microorganisms, factors