Med. Weter. 2019, 75 (6), 323-328

full text

Senecavirus A: An emerging pathogen causing vesicular disease in pigs
Senecavirus A (SVA) is a single representative species of the Senecavirus genus within the family Picornaviridae. This review presents the current knowledge regarding SVA epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical signs, differential diagnosis and control measures. SVA is not debilitating, but significant because of its resemblance to acute, highly contagious and economically devastating viral diseases, such as FMD. The incubation period of SVA is 4-5 days, the viremia period is short, lasting 3 to 10 days post infection (dpi). SVA shedding lasts up to 28 days. SVA can be shed by oral and nasal secretions and by faeces. The virus excretion peak occurs between 1 and 5 dpi, especially in oral secretions, which contain higher virus loads relative to nasal secretions and faeces. SVA lesions are found most frequently on the snout, lips and tongue, as well as on hooves, specifically, on coronary bands, dewclaws, hoof pads and in interdigital space. The vesicles quickly rupture to form ulcers that may be covered by serofibrinous exudates. The ulcers begin to repair in 7 days, and the regeneration of epithelium is usually complete within 2 weeks. Since clinical lesions induced by SVA are indistinguishable from those observed in other vesicular diseases of swine, accurate and reliable laboratory differential diagnosis is critical to the precise identification of the infectious agent. SVA has potential cytolytic activity and high selectivity for tumour cell lines with neuroendocrine properties versus adult normal cells. Because of its potential oncolytic activity, the virus can be useful in human cancer therapy. The example of SVA shows that the risk of emerging infectious diseases in swine populations is high and that emerging diseases of swine have significant potential impact on the productivity and economics of the pork industry. The SVA infection is currently limited to the United States, Canada, Brazil, China and Thailand. However, descriptions of the SVA infection in Asia suggest that the virus is not restricted to a specific geographic region and may be distributed on a global scale in the future.
Keywords: Senecavirus A, swine, emergent vesicular disease, oncolytic virotherapy