Med. Weter. 2019, 75 (7), 422-425

full text

Basic chemical composition, colour and content of PAHs and nitrates in smoked pork products made from Puławska breed
The aim was to assess the quality and safety of traditional smoked meats produced from the meat of Puławska breed pigs. The research material consisted of two skeletal muscles, namely, semimembranosus and longissimus dorsi, taken from 10 carcasses of Puławska breed fatteners. Smoked meats were produced with a 3% addition of salt, spices and acid milk whey (2%). The products were assessed in terms of their basic chemical components (water, protein, fat and salt), colour parameters in the CIE L*a*b* colour space and the content of contaminants, i.e. PAHs [chrysen, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene] and residues of nitrates (III) and (IV). The muscle type had no significant effect on the chemical composition of the products, although a higher content of fat and a lower content of salt were found in loin (by 2.79 and 0.38 percentage points, respectively). Smoked meat from longissimus dorsi was significantly lighter in colour (L*; 60.85 vs. 69.28), whereas smoked meats from ham showed a significantly greater degree of redness (a*; 13.24 vs. 8.75). The degree of yellowness of both products was similar (b*; 8.56 vs. 8.85). The content of 4 PHAs and B(a)P in smoked meats from ham was below the permissible limits for traditional products, which are 30 μg/kg and 5 μg/kg, respectively. In the case of smoked meats from loin, the threshold value (30 μg/kg) for the total of 4 PHAs was exceeded in two products, which affected their relatively high average content in smoked meat from this muscle (48.28 μg/kg). Nitrates III and IV were present only in one smoked meat from ham at the levels of 12 ± 2.7 mg/kg (expressed as NaNO2) and 48 ± 11 mg/kg (expressed as NaNO3), respectively. For the other products (from both ham and loin), the results were below the detection limit (results not presented in the table). From the nutritional point of view, the chemical composition of these smoked meats was beneficial: the protein content was high, the fat content was optimal, the content of table salt did not exceed the permissible limit, and there were only trace quantities of nitrates III and V. As far as PHAs are concerned, some measures should be taken to reduce their level, especially in smoked meats from loin.
Keywords: nutritional value, PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene, nitrates, smoked products