Med. Weter. 2019, 75 (8), 493-501

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Relationship between mean platelet volume, low-grade systemic coagulation and vitamin D deficiency in canine visceral leishmaniasis
Canine visceral leishmaniasis is associated with cardiac changes. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that vitamin D and coagulation parameters, such as D-dimer, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), partial thromboplastin time (PT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and white blood cell (WBC) levels, change in different stages of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Thirty-two dogs diagnosed with CVL were classified into four different groups: stage I (mild disease), stage II (moderate disease), stage III (severe disease), stage IV (very severe disease), and healthy controls. The groups were based on clinical signs, rapid ELISA/IFAT, hematological and serum biochemical tests, and urinary protein/creatinine ratios. Serum vitamin D levels were positively correlated with MPV (r = 0.503), but negatively correlated with D-dimer (r =-0.326), APTT (r =-0.361), PT (r =-0.289), and WBC (r = -0.384). The dogs with leishmaniasis showed increased WBC levels compared with the control group. Similarly, their vitamin D levels were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group (p<0.05). Severely diseased dogs (stage IV leishmaniasis) showed the lowest vitamin D levels, but there were no significant differences between dogs in the various stages of leishmaniasis. The evidence provided by this study indicates that the CVL dogs had low-grade systemic coagulation and fibrinolytic activation, as indicated by elevated MPV, PT, WBC and D-dimer levels, which may be used as a biomarker of low-grade systemic inflammation in CVL.
Keywords: canine visceral leishmaniasis, coagulation, low grade, stage