Med. Weter. 75 (12), 713-718, 2019

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Role of trophic factors in development and regeneration of skeletal muscles
The process of skeletal muscle development is regulated by many biologically active factors, which are responsible for stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of muscle cells. Biologically active factors function in paracrine, autocrine and endocrine manner to control myogenesis. The main regulators include hormones, growth and differentiation factors, as well as cytokines. The process of skeletal muscle regeneration associated with the activation of satellite cells for their proliferation and differentiation requires the involvement of many growth factors secreted by the surrounding tissue, including inflammatory cells, blood vessels and damaged muscle fiber, as well as extracellular matrix. A number of trophic factors regulating the activity of satellite cells during muscle regeneration have been identified, e.g. fibroblast growth factors, transforming growth factors-β, insulin-like growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6. These factors are responsible for maintaining a balance between the processes of proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in order to restore the proper architecture and functioning of muscle tissue.
Keywords: trophic factors, myogenesis, regeneration of skeletal muscles