Med. Weter. 76 (5), 266-272, 2020

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Uterine inflammatory conditions in dairy cows: Diagnosis and treatment
The diagnosis of inflammatory conditions in the uterus depends primarily on the severity of the inflammation process and associated clinical symptoms. Because of the period of occurrence and characteristic signs, severe lesions in the uterus, such as metritis puerperalis, are not difficult to diagnose and do not require the use of diagnostic methods other than clinical examinations and, if necessary, additional tests to determine the general condition of the animals. However, in this case, it is important to precisely identify the pathogenic factor and to determine its susceptibility to antibiotics in order to define further treatment. Endometritis is the biggest diagnostic problem, especially its subclinical form, which can be diagnosed only by additional cytological or histopathological tests. These tests, although available, are not routinely performed in Poland at this time. The latest diagnostic methods, such as immunohistochemical tests or flow cytometry, have provided many previously unknown data, for example, on the action of the local resistance mechanisms in the uterus. Since the immune system of the uterus is not fully known, the above tests may improve the understanding of its activity or may help modulate its functions in the future as a potential preventative measure or treatment for inflammatory conditions of the uterus. The treatment of inflammatory conditions in dairy cows is currently based on two basic methods: intrauterine administration of antibiotics and intramuscular injections of prostaglandin-based preparations. The main goal of the treatment is to improve the fertility of cows in the herd, and since these methods are often ineffective, there have been attempts to treat endometritis with iodine-based preparations and preparations containing enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain). They did not, however, improve the fertility of cows. The administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs to eliminate the inflammatory condition of the uterus and to prevent early deaths of embryos at the time of the greatest risk of embryo loss did not increase the number of pregnancies in cows either. Literature data suggest that immunomodulation and the use of probiotics may be useful in the prevention and treatment of endometritis.
Keywords: metritis, endometritis, diagnostics, treatment, dairy cows