Med. Weter. 79, (1), 28-35, 2023

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Protective effects of Nigella sativa oil against bisphenol A-induced testicular toxicity in rats
The study investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa (NS) oil against testicular damage induced by bisphenol A (BPA). A total of 36 Wistar Albino rats were divided into 4 groups: control (1ml olive oil), NS (5 ml/kg NS), BPA (100 mg/kg BPA in 1 ml olive oil), BPA+NS (100 mg/kg BPA + 5 ml/kg NS). During the 30-day experiment, all substances were administered by oral gavage. The levels of testosterone and LH in serum, as well as MDA, GSH, SOD, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in testicular tissue were measured by ELISA. Spermatological examinations and histopathological analyses of testicular tissue were also performed. BPA was found to raise LH while reducing the serum testosterone level. BPA caused a decrease in GSH, SOD, TNF-α and IL-6, but an increase in MDA and IL-10. BPA also reduced sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and acrosome membrane integrity. Oedema, hyperaemia, mononuclear cell infiltration in the interstitial tissue, as well as giant cell formations, degeneration and necrosis in the seminiferous tubules were seen in the BPA group. In addition, reductions in germinative epithelium, tubule diameter and the Johnson testicular score were noted. In rats receiving NS, hormonal profile, oxidative stress markers and cytokine levels were within normal limits. NS improved sperm motility, mitochondrial activity (JC1), plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14) and partially acrosome membrane integrity (FITC-PNA). NS reduced testis inflammation, significantly ameliorated the testicular score and, to a lesser extent, increased germinative epithelium thickness and tubule diameter. It was concluded that NS has a protective effect against BPA-induced testicular toxicity.
Keywords: BPA, nigellasativa, histopathology, testis, antioxidant