Med. Weter. 69 (9), 521-525, 2013

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Truszczyński M., Pejsak Z.
Innate immunity and its immunostimulants with particular reference to swine
The growing importance in controlling infectious diseases of swine, particularly of multifactorial etiology, by non specific immunostimulants of the innate immunity was discussed. The necessity to extend research in this area was underlined as the consequence of the significant development of large scale production of swine, generating multifactorial diseases and the introduced restrictions in the use of antimicrobials. Following this the innate defense mechanisms were characterized. After mentioning anatomical and physiological barriers the role in innate immunity of leucocytes, particularly neutrophils, mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages and monocytes), natural killer cells, defensins, complement, Toll-Like receptors and cytokines was described. The following immunostimulants used at present in veterinary medicine were mentioned: Biotropin (suspension of inactivated different bacterial species); different preparations containing Propionibacterium spp.; PG/LPS containing Propionibacterium granulosum cell walls (PG) and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Inmodulen®, containing inactivated cells of Propionibacterium granulosum and lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli; a preparation of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing α-D-mannan and β-D-glucan; Lydium-KLP. The definition of adjuvants and their importance in the efficacy of vaccines was given, mentioning particularly Aluminum hydroxide, oil emulsions and saponin preparations including ISCOM.
Key words: swine, innate immunity, immunostimulants, adjuvants