Med. Weter. 73 (8), 462-467, 2017

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Anna Gajda, Andrzej Posyniak
Oral fluid as material for non-invasive antibiotics detection in pigs
Intensive and massive pig production often contributes to excessive administration of antibacterials in veterinary medicine. The misuse and failures to follow the label directions of antibiotics, as well as withdrawal inadequacy, can lead to their residue occurrence in products of animal origin. The residue of drugs may result in many biological adverse effects and allergic reactions in consumers as well as the spread of drug-resistant bacteria and bacterial resistance acquisition. Consolidation of pig production requires ensuring adequate conditions of the maintenance of animals with high health conditions, consistent with the guidelines for animal welfare. At the same time, the control of antibiotics in animals is an important element providing the high quality of pigs breeding, as well as the protection of consumers. In residue monitoring programs, the primary material for the control of antibiotics presence in pigs are tissue samples, collected from animals at the slaughterhouse. However, post-mortem analysis does not give the opportunity of monitoring the usage of antibiotics on the farm during the breeding of animals. In ante mortem drug analysis blood can be used as a diagnostic biological matrix; however, blood sampling is connected with certain disadvantages for the animals and the staff responsible for material collection. The post-mortem detection and presence of antibiotic residues in pork tissues above MRL values very often lead to the recall and destruction of significant quantities of meat, which may contribute to economic losses. Therefore, a strong need to find and implement new methods for ante-mortem detection of antibiotics in animals exists, which minimize interference in animal welfare. The results of preliminary studies demonstrate that oral fluid seems to be an effective tool for monitoring the reasonable treatment and residue avoidance. It offers a cost-effective approach for the screening of large populations of animals. The method of oral fluid collection with cotton rope usage allows for the rapid sampling of material. In case of positive oral fluid ante-mortem analysis results, the slaughtering of animals can be delayed, which can bring the avoidance of costs connected with the non-compliant pig meat destruction.
Key words: oral fluid, non-invasive detection, antibiotics, pigs