Med. Weter. 74

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Niedbalski W., Fitzner A.
New generation vaccines against bluetongue virus
Over the last three decades, a variety of approaches have been investigated to develop new types of bluetongue virus (BTB) vaccines, ranging from baculovirus-expressed subunit vaccines to live vector vaccines. DNA vaccines against BTV consist of DNA plasmid expressing different BTV proteins after inoculation of the animals. The recombinant viral vector vaccines against BTV are based on recombinant viruses that express desired BTV antigens in the host upon inoculation. Viruses such as vaccinia, modified vaccinia Ancara (MVA), capripox, canarypox, herpes, myxoma and fowlpox viruses have been used as vectors of BTV genes. The reverse genetics (RG) systems for BTV are useful tools for BTV vaccine development. Disabled infectious single-cycle (DISC) vaccines make it possible to restore virus replication and can be used for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). These vaccines are based on the production of a modified virus with a deletion in one or more genes that are essential for virus replication. Another approach for BTV vaccine development using RG is the disabled infectious single-animal (DISA) vaccine, generated by deletion of NS3/NS3a expression. DISC and DISA vaccines can mimic the natural tropism of the virus and can express BTV proteins at the site of infection. Important advantages of these new generation vaccines over the conventional BTV vaccines are their high efficacy as well as the possibility of applying them for DIVA. At present, there are a number of novel laboratory-scale BTV vaccines that could meet vaccine profiles required for different field situations. However, further development and licensing of these vaccine candidates for many BTV serotypes is needed in order to prepare for future BT outbreaks. To date, all novel BTV vaccines described in this paper are still under laboratory testing. They are not available commercially, and the time of their application in the field is still indefinite. .
Key words: bluetongue virus (BTV), experimental vaccines, reverse genetics.